||Lecture, three hours; laboratory, three hours. Enforced requisites: course 71, Mathematics 3A, 3B, and 3C (or 31A and 31B). Original programming and application of software to generate and test hypotheses with nonideal or incomplete data sets. Interpolation/extrapolation with graphics to generate hypotheses; forward modeling from fundamental equations to explore implications; probabilistic testing of models against data. Examples and exercises from Earth and space sciences. Introduction to software used in research and industry. P/NP or letter grading.