4:00 PM - 5:00 PM
Geysers are hot springs that periodically or episodically erupt liquid water and vapor. Eruptions of geysers resemble volcanic eruptions, but on a different scale. Geysers are uncommon compared to other non-eruptive hot springs. Fewer than 1000 geysers have been reported on Earth, most concentrated in three geyser fields: Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming, United States), Geyser Valley (Kamchatka, Russia), and El Tatio (Atacama, Chile). Despite more than 200 years of scientific study, the internal dynamics of geyser systems remain poorly characterized. As a consequence, there remain fundamental questions about the thermodynamics of eruptions, the geometry of subsurface pathways, and the factors modulating eruption cycles. To provide answers to these questions, Dr. Munoz-Saez will present unique data collected from El Tatio geyser field, including thermodynamic measurements from inside of geysers conduits and at the surface, and laboratory scale models.